Our new nootropic stack, Prime 1: Cognition, is ready for release, and we couldn't be happier about it.
This super-effective nootropic compound was a labor of love, and we're thrilled to see it on shelves.
All of the items we make are one-of-a-kind and can't be found anywhere else. We have meticulously combed the literature in search of the most effective substances that we believe will significantly improve the mix.
The mixture is made up of 5 powerful substances with solid scientific backing.
Alpha GPC, Ginkgo biloba, L-Theanine, theacrine, Bacopa monnieri, and huperzine A are the aforementioned nootropics.
The whole scientific research that we have assembled for you to read may be found below.
Prime 1: Cognition will be available by the end of June.
L-Alpha Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha GPC) is a choline source that may be synthesized from either soy or sunflower lecithin. Additionally, your body already has some of it in trace levels.
In terms of brain health, alpha GPC is superior to other choline sources because of its increased bioavailability. When compared to choline citrate and choline bitartrate, it is far more effective in penetrating the brain's protective blood-brain barrier. This is why many seasoned nootropic users use Alpha GPC as their go-to choline supply.
The important neurotransmitter acetylcholine is produced in part from a compound called alpha GPC.
Alpha GPC aids in
Cognitive Power. Alpha GPC enhances mood and increases mental energy. The additional choline may improve mental focus and concentration.
The memory-enhancing properties of alpha GPC are much sought after. Due to its high bioavailability, it is an excellent choline source for the synthesis of acetylcholine.
Enhancing Cognitive Function. New brain cells are more easily created after taking alpha GPC. In addition, it improves your brain's capacity to mend broken cell membranes.
Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha GPC) is a naturally occurring form of choline. It's also in dairy products, wheat germ, and organ meats.
Choline is considered an important nutrient since it must be obtained from outside sources when the body's need exceeds its supply.
Choline is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. And to synthesize PC (phosphatidylcholine), an essential component of cell membranes.
Because of its essential role in cognition and nerve function, humans would be unable to move, think, sleep, or remember in its absence.
The body makes extensive utilization of alpha GPC. Human growth hormone synthesis is boosted as a result. Athletes use it to improve their performance and to bulk up without adding fat. It boosts stamina and aids in faster recuperation after exercise.
Alpha GPC and Physical Activity
Here we will discuss the effects of Alpha GPC on your brain's chemistry and health.
What's the Difference Between Alpha-GPC, CDP-Choline, and Choline Bitartrate?
Choline, like the B vitamins, is a water-soluble nutrient. Choline may be obtained from a variety of sources, including Alpha GPC, CDP-Choline, Choline Citrate, and Choline Bitartrate.
In terms of weight, the choline content of CDP-Choline (cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine) is only approximately 18%. Choline is converted into CDP-Choline in your body naturally (Citicoline). Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is produced from it and aids in the formation of acetylcholine and cell membranes.
More choline is included in Alpha GPC than in choline Economical Choline Bitartrate contains around 40% choline by weight and is a popular type of choline. Therefore, the amount of pure choline you get from 1 gram of Choline Bitartrate is 400 milligrams. It has a difficult time penetrating the brain's protective barrier. Therefore, the nootropic advantages won't be as noticeable as they are with Alpha GPC or CDP-Choline.
The choline in alpha GPC, which makes up around 40% of its weight, readily penetrates the blood-brain barrier. Alpha GPC is a byproduct of phosphatidylcholine and hence occurs naturally in the human brain (PC). To replenish its own supply of choline, the brain will break down PC from cell membranes. To produce Alpha GPC.
Alpha GPC is well-liked by the human body and brain. Because it can receive all the choline it needs from food sources rather than consuming its own cells.
What Effect Does Alpha GPC Have on the Brain?
There are several ways in which alpha GPC improves cognitive health and performance. But there are two that are particularly noteworthy.
Acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter linked to memory and general brain function, is increased by Alpha GPC. Alpha GPC is an acetylcholine precursor which facilitates mor effective neural transmission. Memory, learning, cognitive processing, and focus are all improved by this uptick in neuronal transmission.
32 healthy individuals were randomly assigned to receive either Alpha GPC or a placebo before the start of the trial. Scopolamine injections were used to cause amnesia ten days later. The study participants who took Alpha GPC had no impairment in attention or memory compared to the control group who took scopolamine.
These researchers demonstrated that memory performance in young healthy persons might be improved. In a nutshell, by supplementing with Alpha GPC.
Development of cell membranes in the cerebral cortex is directly influenced by alpha GPC. Your brain's gray matter (the brain's outer layer of neural tissues) is where information is processed. It regulates cognitive and motor abilities as well as traits like character, temperament, and the ability to plan ahead and feel.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment with mild to moderate Alzheimer's patients was published in Clinical Therapeutics. Three capsules of 400 milligrams were taken daily for a total of 180 days. As this study concluded, people with dementia who were administered Alpha GPC exhibited continuous improvement.
The brain's chemistry and energy metabolism both change as we age.
Memory, acuity, and disposition all suffer.
Degeneration of brain cell membranes
Decreased acetylcholine levels
Reduction of brain nerve growth factor
All of these aging-related alterations have a role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and dementia.
However, Alpha GPC is useful even if you aren't worried about becoming older. All ages welcome to the Alpha GPC club
Advantages of Alpha GPC
Numerous studies have shown that alpha GPC will:
Enhance your brain's capacity to remember and absorb new information.
Repair acetylcholine's availability in the body.
Restore and enhance brain nerve growth factor receptors
Raise levels of growth hormones throughout the board.
Improve Alzheimer's sufferers' ability to think and remember
Water-soluble alpha GPC penetrates the brain rapidly after ingestion. After entering the brain, it improves communication between nerve cells and prevents damage.
Alpha GPC enhances cognitive function and learning by boosting acetylcholine synthesis and secretion.
This choline is a phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolite rather than a precursor to PC. Therefore, when PC has been digested and its fatty acids have been removed, just Alpha GPC will remain
Instead of your brain having to scavenge for Alpha GPC in its own membranes, you may simply provide it with the specific kind of choline it needs.
Alpha GPC Dosage Suggestions
Choline makes up around 40% of the weight of alpha GPC. So, if you take 1,000 milligrams of Alpha GPC, you'll get around 400 milligrams of choline.
It has been suggested that 400–1,200 milligrams of alpha GPC be taken daily to achieve the desired cognitive effects
Alpha GPC is recommended for use in athletic training at doses of 400 milligrams (mg) upon waking and again 15 to 30 minutes before exercise.
Clinical dosages up to 1,200 mg/day have been effective in treating Alzheimer's disease, dementia, and other cognitive problems.
Divide the complete daily dose of Alpha GPC into two or three doses if you need to take it at a greater strength. In this case, 1,200 milligrams would be divided into four 400 milligram doses.
Ginkgo biloba is used to treat dementia.
The Ginkgo biloba tree, sometimes known as the Maidenhair tree, is very ancient. To scientists, it represents a "living fossil" from around 270 million years ago. It survived many mass extinctions and is still going strong now.
The maximum height of a Gingko tree is 130 feet (39.6 meters). There are rumors that some Ginkgo trees in China are over 2,500 years old. And in Shandong, a region in China, there is said to be a tree that is 3,000 years old.
In China, the medicinal benefits of gingko biloba have been recognized for centuries. Ginkgo biloba was advised for asthma, swelling of the hands and feet, coughs, vascular problems, aging, and the brain in the ancient Chinese Materia Medica (2800 B.C.).
The flavone glycoside (flavonoid) and terpene content of EGb 761, an extract of Gingko leaves, is standardized to 24% and 6%, respectively (ginkgolides and bilobalides).
This Gingko extract improves blood vessel microcirculation, prevents neuronal cell death, and modulates neurotransmitters (blood flow in the smallest of blood vessels). Also, it's an antioxidant.
Supportive effects of Ginkgo biloba include:
Gingko biloba may increase brain dopamine levels. Ginkgo functions as an MAOI, decreasing brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels. Dopamine is metabolized by monoamine oxidase. Anxiety may be alleviated by increasing dopamine levels. Plus, it's used to help those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Brain Blood Flow.
Brain Blood Flow. Blood flow to the brain is improved by ginkgo biloba. Better neuronal health may be achieved by increasing the supply of oxygen and glucose to brain cells. Enhanced capacities for learning, remembering, thinking, and memory.
Ginkgo Biloba improves blood flow to the brain by increasing nitric oxide, which relaxes blood vessel walls and decreasing oxidative stress
For thousands of years, people have utilized the leaves to increase their focus, enhance their brain's circulation, and enhance their general cognitive abilities.
Ginkgo biloba is a kind of nootropic that has been found to improve cognitive function, with particular success in treating age-related cognitive decline, mental slowness, and tinnitus. In one trial, individuals with both Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease showed substantial improvement.
Standardized Gingko extract EGb 761 was used in the investigations and clinical trials that are discussed in this article. It contains 24 % flavone glycosides (flavonoids) and 6% terpenes, according to the standardization (ginkgolides and bilobalides).
What role does Ginkgo Biloba play in the brain?
Ginkgo Biloba has several benefits for brain health and function. But there are two that are particularly noteworthy.
Nine healthy males were studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in research conducted by the Department of Radiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Before and after 4 weeks of taking 60 mg of Gingko Biloba Extract twice daily, MRI scans were performed on the males. Ginkgo improves circulation to the brain.
Using Ginkgo resulted in a statistically significant increase in blood flow to the brain across all areas, the research found.
Brainpower and mental acuity.
In the world of nootropics, gingko is legendary for its ability to improve memory. Researchers have shown that Ginkgo improves cognitive performance.
A major research involving 262 healthy people was undertaken at Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia. For 6 weeks, subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study were given either 180 mg of Ginkgo biloba extract or a sugar pill.
The participants were subjected to a battery of standardized examinations. Ginkgo users in the 6-week study had markedly enhanced verbal and visual memory retention.
The brain's chemistry and energy metabolism both change as we age. The brain's blood arteries thin and contract as we age. Inhibiting the delivery of oxygen-rich blood to brain cells. In the brain, cells amass waste products and free radicals.
Deterioration of memory, recall, response speed, and mood.
-Decreases in key neurotransmitters.
- Chronic stress impairs one's ability to remember things.
All of these aging-related alterations have a role in the development of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's and dementia.
Ginkgo biloba is beneficial regardless of age-related concerns.
Studies in the hundreds have demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba will:
Boost mental clarity and recall
Accelerate your reflexes
Bring back your dopamine and other neurotransmitters.
Increase blood flow to the brain
Raise your spirits
You can aid in the restoration of damaged brain cells.
Remove harmful free radicals by performing the role of an antioxidant.
Studying the Medicinal Uses of Ginkgo Biloba in Humans
Deterioration of mental faculties with age is widely recognized as an inevitable consequence of growing older in modern culture. When cognitive abilities diminish, even simple tasks like listening to a loved one may become challenging.
This decrease will have an emotional and practical impact on your life. And the average age at which this occurs continues to drop. However, many of us in the nootropics community are unwilling to accept memory loss as "normal."
However, after reviewing studies conducted over many years, we came to the conclusion that Gingko Biloba has a slow onset of action. The consequences of supplementing are sometimes not seen until many months have passed. Furthermore, Ginkgo extracts are more effective than the herb itself.
Cognitive Function Is Enhanced by Ginkgo Biloba
Ginkgo Biloba's effects on healthy individuals were investigated by scientists in Germany. Over the course of four weeks, 66 healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Two groups were studied; one received a placebo while the other consumed 240 mg of Ginkgo Biloba extract daily.
Those who took Ginkgo Biloba extract reported significantly higher levels of "self-perceived" mental health and quality of life at trial's conclusion. Their scores on action and response time assessments were much higher. Additionally, they noted a significant enhancement in their mood in comparison to the placebo group.
Living conditions are enhanced by taking Ginkgo biloba.
For the next four, six, or ten months, 1,570 English men and women either did not take any dietary supplement or took 120 mg of Ginkgo Biloba extract daily.
Ginkgo extract improved participants' ADLs, happiness, and alertness, compared to a placebo (who took nothing).
Anxiety, depression, energy, sleepiness, melancholy, and happiness were all measured. They were asked to assess their level of alertness based on five different states: being clumsy, dizzy, relaxed, and weary.
Results showed that the longer research participants consumed Ginkgo Biloba extract, the greater the improvement in all scores. A study found that taking Ginkgo extract for 10 consecutive months had better results than doing so for just 4 months. The more people took the Ginkgo Biloba extract, the better their quality of life became.
The cognitive benefits of Gingko Biloba include enhanced focus and recall.
The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that a single dosage of Gingko might increase attention and memory in healthy volunteers at the University of Northumbria in the United Kingdom. Twenty participants completed this placebo-controlled, multi-dose, double-blind study.
There were four different doses of Gingko Biloba extract (120, 240, and 360 milligrams) administered to the participants. Their attention span, attention precision, memory capacity, and memory quality were all evaluated. They were evaluated beforehand, then again 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours after receiving the dosage or placebo.
Researchers found that many indicators of mental performance were enhanced by Ginkgo. The effects of slowing down one's "attentional speed" were the most striking. The maximum dosage of 360 mg had superior outcomes than that of 240 mg.
At the 2.5-hour point, this enhancement was seen. However, the effects of the Gingko supplement were still there 6 hours later.
Ginkgo dosage results in "sustained increase in attention in healthy young volunteers," according to the study's authors.
The Optimal Dose of Ginkgo Biloba
It is suggested that you take 40 milligrams of Gingko biloba three times daily. However, the recommended dose for the illness being treated varies from 120 mg to 600 mg each day.
L-theanine (r-glutamylethylamide) is an amino acid that is found in green tea (camellia sinensis) and the mushroom Xerocomus badius. L-Theanine is structurally similar to the neurotransmitters l-glutamate and l-glutamine.
L-theanine crosses the blood-brain barrier with ease. And within 30 to 45 minutes after taking a supplement or drinking green tea, the compound enters the brain.
L-Theanine can decrease your blood pressure, revitalize and calm you, increase your attention, and transform your mood. L-Theanine improves cognitive health by balancing brain chemistry.
L-Theanine is beneficial
Waves in the brain. L-Theanine promotes alert relaxation by increasing alpha brain waves (8-12Hz). And theta brain waves are linked to creativity and trauma relief.
Neurotransmitters. L-theanine raises GABA, serotonin, and dopamine levels in the brain. Producing both a stimulating and soothing impact. As well as enhancing intellect and memory.
Neuroprotection. L-theanine is an NMDA receptor agonist that inhibits glutamate synaptic release. Protecting your brain from glutamate overstimulation and possibly glutamate toxicity.
Tea contains the non-dietary amino acid L-Theanine (r-glutamylethylamide). And notably high amounts in green tea (camellia sinensis). Sakato extracted L-theanine from green tea for the first time in 1949 in Japan.
It is digested into l-glutamate and ethylamine in your gut and liver as an equivalent of glutamate and glutamine. And readily passes your blood-brain barrier.
L-Theanine is one of the few nootropics shown to affect brain waves. It has an effect on alpha brain waves, which are connected with relaxing. L-Theanine promotes super-learning, flow moods, and joy by providing alert tranquility.
L-theanine increases the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and GABA in your brain. In addition to boosting Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) (NGF).
L-Theanine is known to help reduce stress, enhance cognition, raise mood, and cognitive performance.
How does L-Theanine function in the brain?
L-theanine improves brain health and function in a variety of ways. But two in particular stick out.
L-Theanine relieves both physical and emotional stress. L-theanine promotes alpha brain waves, which are related with mental calm and attention.
One research in South Korea included 20 healthy male participants aged 18 to 30 years. For seven days, one group received L-Theanine pills while the other received a placebo.
Brain waves were recorded 40 minutes after the pills were administered. The researchers examined alpha wave power levels. And they determined that L-Theanine pills boosted the production of alpha brain waves, which are associated with mental calm and attention.
In May of 2016, researchers at Canada's Simon Fraser University created a method for clinically measuring brain wave patterns. With this technology, we may now diagnose cognitive impairment before it occurs. Consider the consequences of this breakthrough technology when applied to the field of nootropics.
L-theanine boosts neurotransmitters. According to studies, L-Theanine boosts dopamine, serotonin, and GABA levels in the brain. [v] It also decreases the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which is linked to stress, tension, and agitation.
A Japanese research used 12 participants who went through four distinct trials. One in which they ingested L-Theanine at the outset of the trial. One in which they stopped halfway through. In addition, they participated in two control trials in which they were given either a placebo or nothing at all.
L-Theanine reduced heart rate and s-IgA levels linked with acute stress, according to the findings. The researchers found that L-Theanine may have anti-stress benefits through inhibiting cortical neuron activation.
Both our brain chemistry and our energy metabolism alter as we become older.
- Neurotransmitter levels fall
- Glutamate levels rise; stress levels rise; long-term memory and mood diminish; and sleep quality falls.
Once we reach maturity, these alterations can occur at any age. And are variables in neurodegenerative disorders of aging as well as quality of life.
L-Theanine is a nootropic that has been shown to provide energizing, calming, and motivating effects without the negative side effects.
L-theanine has a soothing effect and reduces anxiety.
Caffeine levels in tea (thanks to L-Theanine) can rival those in some coffee varieties. Nonetheless, it does not have the same "quick" impact. The explanation is the component L-Theanine.
Using an EEG, you can witness the influence of L-Theanine on your brain. Brain waves are smoothed rather than flattened. So your body and mind are relaxed, but you don't fall asleep. L-Theanine also increases serotonin and dopamine levels once it penetrates the blood-brain barrier.
L-Theanine can even help you sleep better. Researchers in Japan gave individuals 200 mg of L-Theanine daily and tracked their sleep habits. L-Theanine improved sleep quality, fatigue recovery, and feeling refreshed.
L-Theanine also improves your mood. L-Theanine affects serotonin, dopamine, and GABA levels after it passes the blood-brain barrier. Modulating mood.
L-Theanine Clinical Trials
Recent studies have shown that L-Theanine can greatly mitigate the effects of a stroke on the brain.
In this massive study conducted in China, researchers chose 14,212 individuals from 12 regions. The ages varied from 35 to 60 years old. The study looked at tea consumption, dosage, and tea type.
This study found that people who drank green, black, or jasmine tea had a 40% lower incidence of stroke.
L-Theanine increases memory.
L-Theanine's impact on cognition was examined in this placebo-controlled, double-blind research.
In this study, 91 people with moderate cognitive impairment were included. For 16 weeks, one group was given 1,680 mg of L-Theanine daily. The control group was given a placebo.
The study revealed that L-Theanine boosted brain Theta waves, which are connected with cognitive alertness and creativity. Memory also improved. The findings of this study showed that L-Theanine has the potential to be used as a cognitive enhancement intervention.
That is an understatement. People practice meditation for years. With the purpose of gaining constant access to brain wave states such as Theta. They did it using L-Theanine in this experiment. The same as a couple cups of high-quality green tea.
L-Theanine relieves stress.
L-Theanine and its effects for stress reduction have been studied extensively in both animal and human studies. And there is considerable evidence that corticosterone and stress have deleterious impacts on memory.
The stress hormone corticosteroids suppress long-term potentiation and interfere with new memory formation.
In this animal study, rats were fed L-Theanine-enriched water for three weeks and subjected to stress-inducing exercise. The researchers discovered that animals given L-Theanine had lower corticosterone levels than rats given none.
Actually, when L-Theanine was administered, the animals showed no signs of stress. Memory was unaffected. The researchers found that L-Theanine altered corticosterone secretion. Furthermore, L-Theanine is an effective prophylactic strategy for memory loss caused by stress.
Dosage of L-Theanine
L-Theanine should be taken between 100 and 400 milligrams once or twice a day. According to the Cleveland Clinic, the daily limit is 1,200 mg.
L-Theanine is water soluble, therefore you may take it with water. Dosage of L-theanine
Quality green tea labels frequently just show the amount of green tea leaf in each bag in milligrams (mg). But not its L-Theanine content. Green tea, when steeped properly, has 1-2 percent L-Theanine per cup. So 1,500 mg of green tea leaf equals around 30 mg of L-Theanine (at 2 percent ).
Determine what is most effective for you. Begin with a lesser dose, such as 100 mg. And gradually increase the intensity until you obtain the desired results.
Bacopa Monnieri (Brahmi) is a creeping perennial aquatic plant. Originally from the marshes of India and other southeastern Asian nations.
Bacopa, also known as water hyssop, is commonly referred to as "Brahmi." Named after the ultimate deity Brahma.
The nootropic properties of Bacopa Monnieri were originally documented in ancient Ayurvedic scriptures. It was advised to devotees to help them memorize large portions of scripture. As well as improving intellect.
Bacopa Monnieri is also an adaptogen. It aids in the prevention of both the chemical and physical impacts of stress. Rather than just suppressing them as many current medications do.
Bacopa Monnieri can help
Neurotransmitters. Bacopa influences acetylcholine levels in the brain, which is vital for memory and cognition.
Cognition. Bacopa contains antioxidant properties that boost cognitive function. Bacopa extract helps to prevent arterial plaque, which may lead to heart attacks, strokes, and other neurological disorders.
Anxiety and stress Bacopa has a substantial anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effect. It appears to influence serotonin levels in the brain. This has an impact on mood control.
Bacopa, also known as water hyssop, is commonly referred to as "Brahmi." Named after the ultimate deity Brahma.
Bacopa was mentioned in Ayurvedic books in the past. It was advised to devotees to help them memorize large portions of scripture.
Bacopa Monnieri is commonly used to treat anxiety, depression, and stress in the Western world. However, it is gaining prominence in the nootropic world as a potent memory and cognition booster.
The active component Bacoside A in Bacopa quickly penetrates the blood-brain barrier.
Bacopa monnieri: What Role Does It Play in the Brain?
In a variety of methods, Bacopa Monnieri improves brain health and function. But two stick out in particular.
Bacopa Monnieri improves memory. Bacosides A and B are the active ingredients in Bacopa. They enhance the transmission of electrical impulses between neurons in your brain. Bacosides also aid in the regeneration of damaged neurons.
Bacopa Monnieri improves learning and memory. In one trial, 54 participants in Portland, Oregon were given 300 mg of Bacopa Monnieri every day for 12 weeks.
After the 12-week trial, those who took Bacopa had:
- Improved word recall - Increased attentiveness
- Improved memory scores Better memory with Bacopa Monnieri
- Improved capacity to concentrate while studying
- Reduced anxiety and heart rate
Bacopa Monnieri relieves tension. Bacopa has long been utilized as a nervous system tonic in Ayurveda. It alleviates anxiousness.
Bacopa was shown to be equally helpful for anxiety as the benzodiazepine medication lorazepam in studies at Banaras Hindu University in India. Memory loss is one of the lorazepam adverse effects. Bacopa Monnieri, on the other hand, lowered anxiety while increasing cognition.
What causes things to go wrong
Cortisol and chronic stress can both harm your brain. Neuroscientists at the University of California, Berkeley discovered that chronic stress causes long-term changes in brain structure and function.
Chronic stress harms neuronal networks. Overexpression of some proteins causes neuronal damage.
Toxins enter cells and disrupt their regular, healthy function. And if free radicals are not eliminated, they cause oxidative damage to brain cells.
- Chronic stress impairs memory capacity Bacopa Monnieri alleviates chronic stress.
Synapses and neurons are killed by free radicals, and toxins attack brain cells from the inside.
Chronic stress reduces your brain's ability to efficiently transport impulses between neurons. This has negative effects on learning, memory, and judgment.
Advantages of Bacopa Monnieri
Chronic stress causes brain damage, which Bacopa Monnieri reverses. It also keeps it healthy. This is a little difficult, so bear with me.
Superoxide dismutase, cytochrome enzymes EROD and PROD, and heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) all work together to keep free radicals from damaging your brain (SOD).
Hsp70 assists proteins in cells in maintaining proper shape and function. EROD (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase) and PROD (7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase) are detox enzymes. They safeguard your brain by turning dangerous poisons into less hazardous molecules. SOD also fights harmful free radicals known as superoxides. And transforms them into innocuous chemical molecules.
Under Stress, Bacopa Monnieri Maintains Brain Health
Hsp70 levels rise in all areas of the brain when you are stressed. However, study showed that rats medicated with Bacopa for seven days reduced the majority of this rise in Hsp70. Particularly in parts of the brain involved for memory. Bacopa Monnieri comes to the rescue
This indicates that by creating less Hsp70 under stress, Bacopa helps make your brain less vulnerable to stress. Bacopa kept certain brain areas calm. Even in the face of stress.
Bacopa also has a preventative effect on EROD and PROD. These two enzymes increased in rats treated with Bacopa but not stressed. It is suggested that Bacopa aids in the storage of these defensive enzymes, allowing you to deal with stress more effectively.
When it comes to superoxide dismutase (SOD), "Bacopa assists in dealing with the combination hypoxic, hypothermic, and immobilization stress," according to the study authors. As a result, Bacopa increases SOD activity and prepares cells to withstand free radical attacks.
All of this suggests that Bacopa Monnieri assists your brain in dealing with stress. It also aids in memory enhancement.
Nootropic Effects of Bacopa Monnieri
Swinburne University in Australia conducted this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. For 90 days, 107 healthy volunteers were administered 300 mg of Bacopa Monnieri extract.
Individuals who received B. Monnieri extract improved significantly in spatial memory, memory accuracy, and their capacity to process visual information after 90 days.
Bacopa Monnieri for Stress Relief
Bacopa is probably best known for its ability to relieve stress. In the lab, Swinburne University of Technology in Australia acknowledged this.
17 healthy volunteers were administered 320 mg or 640 mg of Bacopa extract in this double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial. The study found that there was a significant improvement in mood as well as a decrease in cortisol levels.
This study demonstrated Bacopa's adaptogenic properties. Bacopa Monnieri reduced the effects of stress by limiting hormones involved in the stress response.
Longevity and Bacopa Monnieri
Long-term aluminum exposure can raise the risk of Alzheimer's disease by 60%. (Before continuing, check the label of your underarm deodorant.)
According to research, Bacopa Monnieri can help shield your brain from toxins. Including aluminum.
It keeps toxins from accumulating between and within neurons. In addition, it protects the hippocampus. The part of your brain responsible for learning, memory, and cognitive power.
Researchers at India's Jawaharlal Nehru University injected aluminum chloride into the water supply of laboratory mice. The very same aluminum that is toxic to your brain. In this study, the preventive effects of Bacopa Monnieri helped some of the rats.
Bacopa Monnieri protected the rats' brains from oxidative damage caused by aluminum. And it worked just as well as the Alzheimer's drug selegiline. Bacopa renewed the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) to near-normal thresholds. Indicating the anti-aging properties of Bacopa Monnieri.
Dosage information for Bacopa Monnieri
There is no 'correct' dosage of Bacopa. Each person's body is unique. In general, use the smallest dose that appears to work for you. Bacopa also works better if taken several consecutive days rather than just once.
The recommended daily dose of Bacopa Monnieri containing 45 percent bacosides is 200 – 450 mg.
The recommended daily dose of Bacopa Monnieri (20% bacosides) is 750 mg.
Higher dosing should be equally split, with your first dose in the morning and your second dose in the early afternoon.
Because bacopa is fat-soluble, it should be combined with a healthy fat source such as organic, cold-pressed virgin olive or coconut oil. Fat aids your body's absorption of the beneficial compounds found in Bacopa. And aids in the delivery of it to your brain cells.
To put it simply, theacrine is a naturally occurring molecule that functions in a way quite similar to caffeine. It can be found in various types of tea and coffee, as well as the seeds of the Herrania and Theocrama plant species. The tea plant, Camellia assamica var. kucha, has also traditionally been used to treat the common cold and increase longevity.
People use theacrine orally to slow down the aging process, fight off the common cold, combat weariness, and enhance mental ability. Theacrine is also found in pre-workout supplements marketed to improve athletic performance.
What Is the Mechanism?
Animal studies have largely informed our understanding of how theacrine functions.
In mice and rats, theacrine binds to adenosine receptors (ADORA1, ADORA2A) and it seems to have a different effect based on the dosage:
Adenosine receptors are blocked by a high dose (48 mg/kg in rats). This mechanism, like caffeine, works to counteract the drowsiness caused by adenosine.
Smaller doses (3 mg/kg in mice) have the opposite effect, raising adenosine levels in the brain (hippocampus) and combatting caffeine's stimulatory effect.
In rats, high doses of theacrine activate dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (DRD1, DRD2). Motivation and wakefulness are controlled by the activation of these receptors.
Theacrine may potentially have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, according to mouse studies:
It protected the liver from damage by lowering the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1, TNF-, IL-6, and IFN- in the liver.
Furthermore, it improved the antioxidant defenses of stressed mice by raising their blood and liver levels. Theacrine boosted the synthesis of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase while decreasing the activity of xanthine oxidase (an enzyme that creates reactive oxygen species).
Early study reveals that consuming a single dosage of a particular theacrine substance (TeaCrine; Compound Solutions, Inc.) did not increase concentration in healthy persons. However, this information may be inaccurate. Taking the same substance every day for 7 days may enhance certain concentration measures in some persons.
According to preliminary study, consuming a single dosage of a particular theacrine product (TeaCrine; Compound Solutions, Inc.) enhances energy and lowers weariness in healthy adults. Taking the same product for 7 days may also improve some people's energy and fatigue measurements.
Boosting Energy, Concentration, and Motivation
Theacrine is a stimulant for the central nervous system that has gained popularity as a pre-workout and fat burner product in the world of sports nutrition. Individuals who have taken it indicate that it gives a long-lasting energy boost without the bad side effects associated with caffeine (anxiety, sleeplessness, and tolerance).
Moreover, this is supported only by a few small-scale human studies.
A single dose of theacrine (200 mg) improved subjects' feelings of alertness, attention, readiness to work out, motivation to train, and libido, according to a research involving 15 healthy individuals.
While comparing a supplement combining theacrine and caffeine to caffeine alone, participants in another placebo-controlled research of 20 healthy persons reported greater subjective emotions of attention, alertness, and concentration when using the supplement including theacrine.
Theacrine greatly increased rats' physical activity, and it is thought that this action is mediated through the adenosine and dopamine systems.
While preliminary research suggests that theacrine can boost energy and enhance attention and motivation in the general population, bigger well-designed studies are required to establish if theacrine can really increase energy and improve concentration and motivation in the general population.
Dopamine levels that are high provide emotions of vitality, enhanced mood, and enjoyment.
Dopamine receptors DRD1 and DRD2 in rats are activated by high doses of theacrine. Furthermore, theacrine stimulates activity in the brain's nucleus accumbens area, which is connected with pleasure and reward.
In a study of 20 healthy people, a pill containing both theacrine and caffeine improved several subjective emotions of energy and mood when compared to caffeine alone or a placebo. It also reduced sensations of drowsiness and grogginess.
Theacrine lowers depression-like behavior in mice in a variety of tests.
A single animal research and a modest trial are clearly insufficient to demonstrate that theacrine can boost mood. More clinical trials with larger and more diverse populations are required to confirm these preliminary findings.
Theacrine may function similarly to polyphenols in tea, which can inhibit dietary cholesterol absorption and lower blood cholesterol levels.
A study of 60 healthy people found that high-dose theacrine supplementation reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels somewhat.
In mice, a low dose of theacrine reduced wake time and increased sleep time. It also decreased caffeine-induced sleeplessness.
Furthermore, theacrine significantly increased adenosine levels in the hippocampus of rats, which has sleep-promoting effects
Inflammation and Pain
In mice, theacrine reduced inflammation with a potency comparable to or less than the anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin. The pain-relieving effects in the research were dose-dependent.
The same study found that caffeine had no effect on inflammation or pain in mice.
Caffeine vs. theacrine
Caffeine is known to have a comedown effect after a matter of hours, resulting in increased weariness. This eventually leads to consuming more coffee or taking bigger amounts, which eventually leads to tolerance.
According to research in both animals and humans, theacrine does not cause fatigue or tolerance over time. Theacrine illustrated non-habituating effects in 60 healthy individuals after 8 weeks of daily use at up to 300 mg/day in a placebo-controlled study.
Furthermore, researchers have hypothesized that, unlike caffeine, theacrine may not affect blood pressure, cause anxiety, or cause insomnia. Furthermore, it may have advantages that caffeine does not, such as reducing inflammation and relieving pain. However, we don't know if these apply to humans at this time.
According to animal research, theacrine has a biphasic dosage response, which means it works as a sedative at low doses and has stimulatory effects at high levels.
Theacrine has been used in studies and by individuals in doses ranging from 50 to 300 mg per day.
Lower doses may be relaxing, while higher doses are commonly stimulatory.
In an 8-week investigation of 60 healthy individuals, theacrine at doses of up to 300 mg/day was judged safe and non-habituating.
Although it has a similar structure to caffeine, more studies are needed to determine the safety of theacrine at this time.
Huperzine-A (Hup-A) is a nootropic alkaloid produced from Chinese Club Moss (Huperzia serrata). Southeast Asia is the origin of this plant. And has been used for millennia in traditional medicine to heal skin disorders, muscular difficulties, and to improve blood circulation.
Huperzine-A is an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor that is reversible. That is, it hinders the breakdown of acetylcholine (ACh). Enhancing both short-term memory and long-term cognitive functioning
Huperzine-A appears to be an NMDA receptor antagonist as well. This is advantageous because it eliminates an excess of glutamate from harming brain cells.
Huperzine-A is beneficial
Huperzine-A inhibits the enzyme AChE's ability to degrade acetylcholine. Enhancing cognition and memory
Huperzine-A promotes mitochondrial function in brain cells. The key sources of energy for brain cells and brain cell activity.
Huperzine-A acts as an antioxidant and increases the action of other brain antioxidants. Keeping free radicals at bay in brain cells. In addition to increasing brain cell lifespan.
Huperzine-A (Hup-A) is a natural plant alkaloid nootropic that is water-soluble and quickly passes the blood-brain barrier.
Acetylcholinesterase is strongly inhibited by huperzine-A. (AChE). The AChE enzyme is in charge of decomposing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh).
Increasing the transmission of acetylcholine (ACh) in the brain increases memory and attention. Furthermore, it increases increased neuroplasticity, which is required for long-term memory development and overall brain cell health.
Huperzine-A is an NMDA receptor antagonist as well. This glutamate receptor regulates synaptic plasticity and memory capacity. That is a good thing. However, inhibiting its operation might be useful at times. By preventing glutamate-induced damage. As well as reducing the toxicity of some nerve agents.
The combination of increasing acetylcholine and inhibiting NMDA receptors necessitates a delicate equilibrium. And that might explain why it's helpful to cycle Huperzine-A usage. To preserve the delicate balancing act of neurochemistry in the brain while reaping the advantages of Huperzine-A.
What is the mechanism of action of Huperzine-A in the brain?
Huperzine-A improves brain function and health in a variety of ways. However, two in particular jump out.
Huperzine-A inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE is an enzyme that degrades the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. As a result, Hup-A aids in the prevention of this breakdown. Increasing the availability of acetylcholine, which increases memory and learning.
Scientists from Israel's Weizmann Institute discovered how Huperzine-A acts to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). They created a 3-D model of the AChE molecule's structure. And discovered the "active-site gorge," a vast crevasse.
Huperzine-capacity A's to replace acetylcholine within the AChE enzyme is how additional acetylcholine is made accessible in the brain.
"It's as if this natural material were cleverly made to fit into the exact area in AChE where it will do the greatest help," stated Professor Joel Sussman.
Huperzine-A also has neuroprotective properties. Hup-A was revealed to protect against glutamate-induced toxicity. The hippocampus and other cortical neurons are protected against cell death induced by the amino acid glutamate.
Huperzine-A not only protects against glutamate-induced toxicity, but it also induces new dendritic development in neurons.
Our metabolism and brain chemistry both shift as we become older.
- Acetylcholine levels fall
- Concentration, concentration, and mental agility suffer; nerve growth factor suffers; and free radicals harm brain cell mitochondria.
All of these changes are possible at any age. And are influenced by what we eat, drink, how we live, the air we breathe, and other factors.
As a result, Huperzine-A can benefit both age-related cognitive decline and students wishing to improve their academic performance. By increasing acetylcholine availability in your brain.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is necessary for memory encoding, reasoning, focus, cognition, and neuroplasticity. ADHD, Alzheimer's, and other neurodegenerative illnesses can be caused by a lack of ACh.
As a nootropic, Huperzine-A can improve short-term mental functioning such as attention and memory. And even assisting your brain in the long run.
Huperzine-A is a kind of antioxidant.
Huperzine-A promotes mitochondrial function in brain cells. Each cell's primary energy centers. It acts as an antioxidant, reducing free radical damage. Free radicals damage mitochondrial activity. Hup-A has been found in studies to boost the activity of other antioxidant enzymes.
Huperzine-A protects against beta-amyloid dysfunction.
Huperzine-A increases neuron resistance to beta-amyloid-induced malfunction, which may lead to illnesses such as Alzheimer's. ATP levels in mitochondria are affected by beta-amyloid. Hup-A guards against this type of harm.
Huperzine-A protects against glutamate toxicity.
Huperzine-A shields brain cells against glutamate toxicity. Too much glutamate, a neurotransmitter, has been linked to brain cell degeneration. As well as other cognitive and behavioral issues. Hup-A appears to reduce glutamate toxicity in part by functioning as an NMDA receptor antagonist.
Huperzine-A raises nerve growth factor levels.
Huperzine-A stimulates nerve growth factor (NGF) production in the brain. NGF plays an important role in brain cell formation, maintenance, and repair. NGF deficiency in the brain has been linked to Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative illnesses. According to research, Hup-A not only inhibits this decline in NGF from occurring. It actually increases NGF production.
Huperzine-A Clinical Trials
Huperzine-A is most recognized for its ability to increase acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the brain. Learning, memory, and attention all rely on effective ACh neurotransmission.
Reduced ACh levels are linked to cognitive and memory impairments. And have been linked to a number of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, ALS, and others.
Huperzine-A supplementation is beneficial even in persons who show no signs of brain illness. It can improve memory and attention in those who want to improve their cognition.
Huperzine-A Enhances Learning and Memory
This study supports the use of Huperzine-A as a nootropic at any age. 68 pupils with poor memory were chosen by Chinese researchers. And their academic performance was deteriorating.
For four weeks, students received either 100 mcg of Hup-A or a placebo in this double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment
At the end of the study, researchers discovered that students who took Huperzine-A performed better on memory tests than those who took a placebo.
Huperzine-A Enhances Cognitive Function
Much of the Huperzine-A research has taken place in China. Many of the trials have included individuals with neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's.
One research conducted in Shanghai included 200 individuals who satisfied the criteria for Alzheimer's Disease. For 8 to 24 weeks, researchers provided 300-500 mcg of Hup-A to one group of patients. The other group received a placebo.
The study's findings revealed that the effects of Huperzine-A grew stronger with time. Patients who utilized Hup-A improved significantly in cognition, orientation, concentration, memory, mood, and behavior.
Huperzine-A Dosage Recommendation
Huperzine-A dose is 50 – 200 mcg every other or third day. Because Hup-A is water-soluble, you do not need to consume it with a meal or healthy fat, as some nootropics do.